"Protein Spiking," or "Amino Spiking," has recently become a common deceptive practice throughout the sports supplements industry. In efforts to combat diminishing profit margins due to relentlessly rising protein prices, companies are slashing the amount of true, whole protein and replacing with cheap, free-form amino acids such as taurine, glycine, alanine or even arginine. They get away with this because they exploit a loophole whereby using these nitrogen rich amino acids, they fool the benchmark Kjeldahl methods for testing protein content. Functionally, this test relies on and measures nitrogen content to determine the amount of protein within a given sample; therefore, deceptively nitrogen-rich free form amino acids will not only register as whole protein gram for gram, but they register as far more protein than this allowing companies to use even LESS protein in their products. They mask these modifications by masquerading like they are adding extra amino acids, when in fact, they are substituting them for the whole protein you are paying for.